文章摘要
崔家傲,马蕙.健康视角下幼儿园声环境*[J].,2021,40(5):649-656
健康视角下幼儿园声环境*
The sound environment of preschools from the perspective of health
投稿时间:2020-12-11  修订日期:2021-09-06
中文摘要:
      幼儿园作为学前儿童生活和进行认知活动的主要场所,其声环境对学前儿童的健康成长十分重要。本文首先以Web of science核心合集数据库为数据来源,综述幼儿园声环境对学前儿童健康的不利影响以及幼儿园声环境现状。其次讨论不同国家幼儿园声学标准,指出其中不足。研究发现幼儿园声环境对学前儿童的健康影响存在于生理、情绪及行为、认知表现方面。以学前儿童语言声与活动声为主的噪声问题在各国幼儿园十分常见,噪声水平高、声压级波动性强且不可控为幼儿园声环境的显著特征。现有规范不足集中于声学指标的选取与最佳标准限值的确定方面。最后依据现有研究结果,结合我国幼儿园现状提出幼儿园声环境设计指导:幼儿园设计阶段建筑设计与声学设计的结合,使用阶段教育方法与使用人员的合理化均有助于塑造良好的幼儿园声环境,为学前儿童的健康成长提供保障。
英文摘要:
      The sound environment in preschools is very important for the healthy growth of preschool children, for the preschool being one of the main locations where children spend time and engage in cognitive activities. Based on the studies from the Web of Science core collection database, this paper provides an overview of health effects that the sound environment of preschools exerts on children and the situation of the sound environment in preschools. Then, the acoustic design criteria for preschools in different countries are discussed and the deficiency is pointed out. It is found that the sound environment of preschools impacts children’s physiology, emotion, behavior and cognitive performance. The noise mainly generated by preschool children’s talking and activities seems to be a common problem in preschools from different countries. The high noise level and the highly fluctuant and uncontrollable sound pressure level could be seen as significant characteristics of the acoustic environment of preschools. The existing acoustic design criteria are insufficient in terms of the selection of acoustic indicators and the determination of optimal limited standards. On the basis of existing research achievements, the acoustic design guide for preschools is proposed combined with the current situation of preschools in our country. Both the combination between architectural design and acoustical design in the stage of preschool design and the rationalization of pedagogical approaches and users in the usage stage contribute to the establishment of excellent sound environment in preschools. That is how the preschool sound environment could be improved for healthier growth of children.
DOI:10.11684/j.issn.1000-310X.2021.05.001
中文关键词: 幼儿园,声环境,噪声,声学标准,健康影响
英文关键词: Preschool, Sound environment, Noise, Acoustic criterion, Health effects
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
崔家傲 天津大学 jiaao97@126.com 
马蕙 天津大学 mahui@tju.edu.cn 
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